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Agricultural Research Station, Vizianagaram

Small millets area, production and productivity

Six Small Millets Ragi (finger millets), Kodo, Foxtail, little, proso and barnyard millets are grown in many states. -The mean annual area under these crops is around 2.8 million hectares of which ragi accounts for 60 percent area and 2/3rd productions cultivations of there millets is seen from sea level in South up to 8000 feet in North particularly in Himalayas and Northern hill regions. Ragi has the pride of place in having highest productivity among millets.

The productivity in this crop, which was around 8.83 q/ha in the year 1986.87 has increased to 13 q/ha during 2002 beginning the states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, in other states the productivity in lower than the national average.- The area under other small millets has significantly gone down and the-declining trend is continuing even now-The productivity of other small millets has also improved marginally of around 485 kg/ha with Madhya Pradesh having highest area but with lowest productivity of around 209 kg/ha-Being drought hardy crops besides environment friendly, small millets are important the low contributions of there crops to the national food basket, small millets after enormous advantages such as early maturity, wide adaptability, early cultivations low input east and high nutritions value of both grain and fodder. It is time that the real value of these crops is recognized and nurtized through appropiats research and development programs in order to explain than fully.

In Andhra Pradesh finger millet locally termed as Ragi, Chodi or Taidulu is an important small millet crop in all these regions of the state.- The grain is utilized as human staple food and straw for cattle feed.

The research work on this crop is being living carried out in Acharya N.G.Ranga Agricultural University at research centers viz., Vizianagaram, Anakapalle and Peddapuram in North coastal zone, Perumallapalli in Southern zone, and Palem in North Telangana zone. Crop verifications functions are carried out at other locations namely, seethampeta and chinthapalli in high attitude zone, Darsi in Krishna Godavari zone- The research work carried out in the state has resulted in the release of very good number of short medium and lay duration varieties suitable for locations specific needs of various zones.- The work on this crop was strengthened further from the year 1986 with the initiation of All India Co-ordinated Research Project (Small Millets), Vizianagaram being on of the main centers .

The present total area of ragi in Andhra Pradesh is 1.46 la/ha which account for really 6% of the total area of the crop in the county.- Ragi is gram in all through the year both under rainfed kharif and late ragi irrigated conditions.- The area of the crop during kharif is 80% of the total extent in the state and the balance is during rabi season.- The area under the crop in coastal Andhra Pradesh is 57% Rayalaseema 19% and Telangana 24% of the total area of the crop in the state.

The present total productions of the crop in Andhra Pradesh is 1.53 lakh tons which accounts for nearly 7% of the total production of the crop in the country.- Coastal Andhra accounts for 62% of the state production.- Eight districts namely Visakhapatnam, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, Chittor, Anantapur, Prakasam, Mahaboobnagar and Rangareddy occupies for 97% of the area and 96% of production in the state.

Ragi crop has wide adaptation and capable of growing under diversed ago ecological zones under different farming situations based on soil, temperature and rainfall factors which warrant breeding of cultivars for high and low temperatures, heavy light sub marginal and low fertility soils of varying elevations.- As growing condition differ from region to region, the choice of proper variety suitable for specific farming situations assumes greater importance.- In ragi blast is one of the major diseases resulting up to 50% of yield lasses.- To solve there millets magnitude problems, research is being carried out at Agricultures Research Station, Gajularega, Vizianagaram with full support of both state (Non-Plan) and ICAR (AICRP on Small Millets).

Area under ragi crop (000 ha) in Andhra Pradesh (1999-2000 to 2004-05)

District

1999-2000

2000-01

2001-2002

-

K

R

Total

K

R

Total

K

R

Total

Srikakulam

3

1

4

2

1

3

3

1

4

Vizianagaram

9

2

11

7

1

8

9

1

10

Visakhapatnam

34

2

36

29

1

30

34

2

36

Prakasam

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

4

4

Nil

6

6

Costal Andhra

46

5

51

38

7

45

46

10

56

Anantapur

6

1

7

5

Nil

5

7

1

8

Chittor

8

1

9

7

Nil

7

11

2

13

RAYALASEEMA

14

2

16

12

Nil

12

18

3

21

Rangareddy

9

Nil

9

3

0

3

5

Nil

5

Mahaboobnagar

12

1

13

7

1

8

14

1

15

Telangana

21

1

22

10

1

11

19

1

20

Andhra Pradesh

81

8

89

60

8

68

83

14

97

District

2002-2003

2003-04

2004-05

-

K

R

Total

K

R

Total

K

R

Total

Srikakulam

2

1

3

2

1

3

2

1

3

Vizianagaram

7

2

9

7

2

9

6

1

7

Visakhapatnam

33

1

34

32

1

33

31

1

32

Prakasam

1

4

5

N

3

3

N

3

3

Costal Andhra

43

8

51

41

7

48

39

6

45

Anantapur

5

1

6

3

1

4

3

N

3

Chittor

12

2

14

10

1

11

11

1

12

RAYALASEEMA

17

3

20

13

2

15

14

1

15

Rangareddy

3

Nil

3

6

N

6

3

N

3

Mahaboobnagar

6

1

7

6

1

7

5

1

6

Telangana

9

1

10

12

1

13

8

1

9

Andhra Pradesh

69

12

81

67

11

78

61

8

69

The present total productions of the crop in Andhra Pradesh is 87000 tons which accounts for nearly 6% of the total production of the crop in the country-Coastal Andhra accounts for 62% of the state production.Eight districts namely Visakhapatnam, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, Chittor, Anantapur,- Prakasam.Mahaboobnagar and Rangareddy occupies for 97% of the area and 96% of production in the state.

-

1999-2000

2000-01

2001-2002

-

K

R

Total

K

R

Total

K

R

Total

Srikakulam

3

3

6

3

1

4

2

2

4

Vizianagaram

9

4

13

9

2

11

7

4

11

Visakhapatnam

35

3

38

32

3

35

37

3

40

Prakasam

Nil

6

6

Nil

12

12

Nil

8

8

Costal Andhra

47

16

63

46

18

62

46

17

63

Anantapur

12

1

13

17

1

18

12

1

13

Chittor

6

2

8

12

3

15

9

2

11

RAYALASEEMA

18

3

21

29

4

33

21

3

24

Rangareddy

11

1

12

5

1

6

6

Nil

6

Mahaboobnagar

9

1

10

14

2

16

7

1

8

Telangana

20

2

22

19

3

22

13

1

14

Andhra Pradesh

85

21

106

94

25

127

80

21

101

-

2002-2003

2003-2004

2004-2005

-

K

R

Total

K

R

Total

K

R

Total

Srikakulam

2

1

3

2

2

4

2

2

4

Vizianagaram

6

1

7

9

3

12

8

1

9

Visakhapatnam

26

0

26

44

3

47

29

1

30

Prakasam

Nil

6

6

N

5

5

N

4

4

Costal Andhra

34

8

42

55

13

68

39

8

47

Anantapur

12

1

13

4

1

5

6

1

7

Chittor

7

1

8

8

2

10

14

2

16

RAYALASEEMA

19

2

21

12

3

15

20

3

23

Rangareddy

4

0

4

6

N

6

7

N

7

Mahaboobnagar

7

1

8

8

1

9

7

1

8

Telangana

11

1

12

14

1

15

14

1

15

Andhra Pradesh

64

11

75

82

19

101

73

14

87

Top^

The productivity of ragi was 1267kg/ha during 2004-05.during rabi the productivity recorded was highest in the year 2004-05 (1802kg/ha). The productivity both in kharif and rabi has increased in the past ten years due to replacement of high yielding varieties.

-

1999-2000

2000-01

2001-2002

-

K

R

Total

K

R

Total

K

R

Total

Srikakulam

933

2012

1248

860

1287

964

1054

1547

1235

Vizianagaram

1107

1823

59

1013

1507

1089

937

1792

1141

Visakhapatnam

1035

1879

1073

939

1792

976

1147

2076

1189

Prakasam

1041

1512

1484

947

2057

2030

1107

1967

1905

Anantapur

1845

1608

1820

2559

1443

2424

2421

1332

2316

Chittor

691

1394

791

1069

1443

1117

740

1332

817

Rangareddy

1243

1717

1260

973

17328

1021

1685

1748

1688

Mahaboobnagar

734

1717

787

1053

1732

1108

1076

1748

1141

Andhra Pradesh

- - - -

-

- -

-

-
-

2002-2003

2003-04

2004-05

-

K

R

Mean

K

R

Mean

K

R

Mean

Srikakulam

958

1178

1021

1339

1516

1417

1236

1921

1489

Vizianagaram

825

1162

869

1346

1748

1440

1191

1451

1230

Visakhapatnam

864

575

859

1351

2804

1395

936

1664

951

Prakasam

862

1466

1434

1350

1631

1625

989

1656

1635

Anantapur

2354

1239

2271

1058

1606

1143

1851

2259

1896

Chittor

962

1239

1000

838

1606

903

1278

2251

1348

Rangareddy

1322

1289

1320

961

1754

977

2407

1802

2391

Mahaboobnagar

1093

1289

1110

1241

1754

1277

1600

1802

1620

Andhra Pradesh

- -

-

1216

1754

1290

1198

1802

1267

Present ragi area in the state is around 70,000ha including both Kharif rainfed and rabi-Most of the area is in small and marginal holdings-Decline in area from 1.6lac ha during eighties is due to shift to maize, cotton and groundnut in north coastal districts.

The present khaif area of 62 thousand hectares can be increased to 80,000 ha during 2006-07 kharif and 8000 hectares of rabi to 15,000ha during rabi 2006-07

The area of the ragi can be increased
Good supporting price (Rs.550/kg at present)
Inter cropping of ragi and redgram in 8:2 ratio
Replacement with high yielding blast resistant varieties.
Educating the farmer the importance of nutrition value of ragi
cultivating ragi in low rain fall areas ( 200-300mm rain fall during crop growth period)
Educating the farmers the use of ragi dry fodder as cattle feed.
propagation of value added products of ragi
The seed requirement to 100% SRR of the present area

Season

Area (ac)

Seed requirement
(qtl)

Breeders seed
kg

Foundation seed
(kg)

Kharif

1,55,000

3100

8

1550

Rabi

20,000

400

1

200

Proposed breeder seed production variety wise.

Varieties Qty in kg
Ratnagiri 10
Godavari 10
Champavathi 05
Bharathi 20
Saptagiri 10
Maruthi 05

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH STATION, VIZIANAGARAM - 535 001

PREAMBLE

Agricultural Research Station was established in the year 1954 on the leased lands in Gajularega Panchayat adjacent to Vizianagaram town. The land was subsequently purchased by Govt. of A.P. in the year 1966 and made the station permanent. The main objective of the station is to look into the needs of the small and marginal upland farmers of north coastal zone comprising Srikakulam, Vizianagaram and Visakhapatnam districts. The main research function of the research station is to develop and release of improved varieties in the predominant millet crops of the zone viz., ragi and bajra and also to develop improved production practices.

The station has developed two improved varieties in ragi, one in jowar and one in horsegram. After seeing the performance, the I.C.A.R has sanctioned a sub centre of All India Co-ordinated Millet Improvement Project in the year 1969 to work on ragi and bajra. Two composite varieties namely; Vijai and Visakha in bajra and one ragi variety Simhadri were released in the years 1971, 1976 and 1982 respectively for general cultivation in the north coastal zone.

After the inception of small millets scheme, a good number of improved cultures were advanced to All India pool. Two outstanding short duration varieties viz., VR 520 and VR 708 advanced from this centre have performed very well in Bihar, U.P., M.P., Orissa, Tamilnadu, Karnataka and A.P. and were released on All India basis in the years 1992 and 1998 as "Suraj" and "Champavathi" for general cultivation in all the ragi growing states with special emphasis to grow these varieties under late sown and early cessation of monsoon conditions. One more culture VR 762 is ready for release. Another improved culture VR 847 is top yielder in All India Co-ordinated Trials for the last three years.

This centre has taken up verification research functions in pulses, oilseeds and other important crops and identified suitable high yielding varieties for rainfed conditions in greengram, blackgram, redgram, soybean, groundnut, sunflower, mustard, castor, jowar and tapioca. In groundnut K 1271, 1340 and 1341 are identified as suitable cultures for kharif rain fed situation. MGG 295 is the best-suited greengram culture for north coastal zone for all the seasons.

The project, National Agriculture Technology Project (RNPS-5) namely, "Refining small millets based cropping system for augmenting supply of legumes (grain/vegetables)" was started with the main objective to improving ragi based cropping system. Though the area of millets is decreasing, considering their nutritive value, the I.C.A.R. is giving importance to improve the economic condition of the small millet farmer by developing technology to introduce legumes as inter crop in millets (nutrition cereals) and also to improve the soil health and assuring minimum guarantee to the farmer. Inter cropping of ragi + redgram in 8:2 and ragi + fieldbean/clusterbean in 8:1 under rainfed conditions is recommended to the farmers based on the results of the project. This cropping system is well accepted by the farmers of north coastal districts.

The station is also involved in collection, evaluation and maintenance of small millets germplasm. The station is continuing the efforts in evolving the improved varieties in ragi and other small millets.

01

Year of establishment

1954

- -

-

02

Agro climatic zone

North coastal zone of A.P.

-

-

-

03

Zonal head quarters

Regional Agricultural Research Station, Anakapalli, Visakhapatnam Dist.

- - -

04

Location of the station
Latitude:180.07' N
Longitude:83.26' E
Altitude:58.22 m. MSL

Agricultural Research Station,
Gajularega village
Vizianagaram-535 001, A.P.

- - -

05

Area

Gross area: 9.07 ha
Net cultivable area: 7.27 ha.
Area under buildings and roads: 1.80 ha.

-

- -

06

Soils

Red sandy loams, Sandy clay loams and clay sands
Soil PH range: 6.35 to 8.50
Organic carbon: Low
Available phosphorus: Low to high
Available potash: Low to medium

-

- -

07

Major farming situations

Red sandy loams with clay base-rainfed
Red sandy loams with clay base- Well irrigated

- - -

08

Irrigation facilities

  1. The entire cultivable area is under rainfed situation.
  2. One open well in F.No. 13 fitted with 7 hp. electric motor is capable of irrigating an area of 0.5 ha. during rabi season.
  3. A bore well fitted with 2 hp. motor is available in F.No. 4 are sufficient to meet the needs of the office and laboratory water requirements.
  4. Four open wells one each in F.No. 4, 7, 24 and 28 are not of use.

09

Rainfall

-

Annual rainfall during: 368.8 mm. (1/1 to 08/2005)
Annual number of rainy days: 39
Annual normal rainfall: 807.6 mm.
Annual normal rainy days: 58.6

10

Infrastructure

  1. Buildings and other structures
---

b.Roads

c. Compound wall

BuildingPlinth area Year of cons.

  1. Office cum laboratory-228.60 sq.m-1969

2.Stores (old)169.86- 1969

  1. Cattle cum-cart shed-98.80- 1969
  2. Threshing floor-225.00- 1981

5.Stores (New)-46.56-1995
6. Motor shed-6.25
7. Public Drinking water tap connection-2004
1. Metal road-260.00 m.-1995
2. Kutcha road-700.00 m.-1969
A new compound wall was constructed around farm of
1630 m during 2001.

- -

11

Farm machinery and implements

  1. Mahindra 475 DI

1. Tractor- 1- 1999
2. Cultivator-1- 1999
3. M.B.plough-1- 1999
4. Leveller- 1-1999

12

Livestock

One pair of work animals aged 16 years (Auctioned)

13

Vehicles

Tata Sumo-1- 2000

14

Schemes operating at the station

  1. ANGRAU-NON-PLAN-RESEARCH- 1954
  2. AICRP ON SMALL MILLETS-1986
  3. NATP-RNPS-5-2000-2003

Staff position

Cadre

AICRP on small millets
Sanction- Vacant

ANGRAU- Non-plan Research
Sanction- Vacant

Sr. Scientist (Plant Breeding)

1-nil

Nil- --

Scientist (Plant Pathology)

1- nil

4-4*

Research Associates

2- nil

Nil---

Agrl Extension Officer

1- nil

1- -

Senior Asst

Nil- --

1- 1

Junior Asst

Nil- --

2- 1

Attenders

Nil- --

1- 1

Agrl work men

Nil- --

5- 1

*2 posts are kept in abeyance

Objectives of the research station

  • To evolve high yielding varieties in finger millet & pearlmillet and to investigate into the manurial & cultural requirements of these crops under the major farming situations of their cultivation- - under rain fed conditions
  • To evolve high yielding varieties in finger millet suitable for irrigated conditions during late rabi season.
  • To carry out testing and verification functions in respect of other important crops of the zone for recommending suitable varieties for rainfed conditions.
  • Production and distribution of breeders and foundation seed of important finger millet and mesta varieties.
  • To institute fresh research programme on the research gaps identified during zreac meetings on the important dry land crops of this zone.
  • Breeding for blast resistant high yielding varieties-of ragi (finger millet) suitable for different farming situations.
  • Small millet germplas collection, evaluation and maintainance.
  • ragi based inter cropping system with pulses (grain/vegetable).
  • screening for diseases of-small millets and management of ragi-blast.

Achievements: Outstanding contributions/Varieties of the Station

Crop

Name of the variety released

Special features

Coverage of the varieties/adoption

Ragi

VZM-1 (1958)

Suitable for late kharif, 105 days to maturity with a yield potential of 25 q/ha.

Less than 10% in the north coastal A.P.

Ragi

VZM-2 (1958)

Suitable for late rabi irrigated conditions, 105-110 days to maturity with 31 q/ha. Yield potential.

Less than 10% in the north coastal A.P.

Ragi

Simhadri (1982)

Suitable for late rabi irrigated conditions, 105-110 duration to maturity with 39 q/ha.

30-50% of irrigated area of the north coastal zone.

Ragi

Suraj (1994)
(VR-520)

Short duration variety 85-90 days duration suitable for early kharif and contingent cropping system-Yield potential 23 q/ha.

Released on all India basis for cultivation in Bihar, Orissa, AP and UP states.

Ragi

Champavathi (1998)
(VR-708)

Short duration suitable for growing in all the seasons with 80-85 days duration- Yield potential 26 q/ha.

Released on all India basis for cultivation in Bihar, MP, UP Tamilnadu, AP & Karnataka.

Ragi

VR 762
(2006)

Medium duration with 110-115 days to maturity. Suitable for growing both in kharif and rabi.- Grain yield potential 30-32q/ha. Good fodder yielder.- Moderately resistant to blast

Released for Andhra Pradesh. The culture is already popular in Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, Prakasham & Vishakapatnam

Bajra

Vijaya Composite (1971)

Suitable for kharif, duration 80-85 days with yield potential 17 q/ha.

This composite was in extensive cultivation from 1976 to 1986.

Bajra

Vishaka Composite (1978)

Suitable for kharif dwarf type, duration 80-85 days with yield potential 17 q/ha.

This composite was in cultivation from 1978 to 1986

Jowar

VZM-1 (1965)

Improved culture AJ-138 was released as VZM-1.- The yield potential of the variety is 13.75q/ha, which is 15%, increase over the local variety AKP-1. Maturity is 110 days. It is a yellow grain variety.

This variety replaced AKP-1 and AKP-2 in the areas of its cultivation.

-

Horsegram

VZM-1 (1958)

A black seeded type suitable for entire state, duration 95-100 days. Yield potential 5-7q/ ha.

The variety is in good spread in AP

* Proposals for the release of the variety are being prepared.

Crop

Name of the variety identified

Adoption by farmers

Redgram

LRG 30, MRG 66, ICPL 332

LRG 30 is in good spread

Greengram

MGG 295, ML 267, PDM 54

ML 267 is in spread. The availability of seed is a constraint in other varieties.

Blackgram

Pant U 30, LBG 20 and T 9

T 9 is in good spread. The availability of seed is a constraint in other varieties.

Groundnut

ICGS 44, K 134, JL 24,
K 1271, 1340 & 1341

JL 24 is in good spread. The availability is a constraint in other varieties. K134 is most suitable

Horsegram

PDM 1, VZM 1, PHG 20, PHG 62, PHG 9

PDM 1 and VZM 1 are in good spread in the state. The availability of seed is a constraint in other varieties.

Jowar

SPV 462, NTJ 1, SPV 86, N14

Identified as suitable vareties

Crop

Item of research

Results

Whether followed/not

Ragi

Best period of sowing NC zone

2nd fortnight of July

Followed

-

Fertilizer recommendation (rain fed)

50:40:25 NPK kg/ha

Rarely followed

-

(irrigated)

60:30:30 NPK kg/ha

Followed

-

On equal nitrogen basis any fertilizer can be applied

--

Followed

-

Spacing 20 X 10 cm

Short duration varieties in early kharif and rabi seasons

Followed

-

Spacing 22.5 X 10 cm

Medium and long duration varieties under rainfed conditions

Followed

- - - -

Ragi

Inter cropping with redgram 8:2

The net benefit cost ratio of 2.16- with an increased net income of Rs. 2500/ha.

The inter cropping system is well accepted by farmers

Bajra

Direct seeding Vs transplanting under rainfed conditions

Direct seeding is recommended over transplanting under normal seasonal conditions.

Followed

-

Application of 80 kg N /ha. in two equal splits is optimum.

For the crop under rainfed conditions

Rarely followed

-

Varietal/hybrid recommendations suitable for north coastal A.P.

Hybrids: ICMH 451, MBH 110, MBH 151, ICMH 423

Followed

-

Populations

WC C75, ICMS 7703, ICTP 8203, Mallikarjuna

Followed

-

Service to farming community: The scientists of this research station are in close association with the department of agriculture and attending to all programmes connected with the dissemination of technical know how and training to the farming community in various forums such as:

  • Attending Diagnostic field visits & Rythu pollalo sastravethalu.
  • Training to farmers of water users association in the district.
  • Attending to farmers field problems and offering suggestions in the diagnostic field visits.
  • Attending to the training of farmers at the farm and explaining the latest developments.
  • Attending to the training of the officers of department of agriculture in the T & V meetings
  • Training to farmwomen in ANTWA.
  • Attending to the training of officers of department of agriculture in kharif and rabi action plan programmes.
  • Organizing-kisanmela at the research station for the benefit of the farmers to know the latest developments and arranging the sale of seeds and publications.
  • Associating in the training programmes to farmers along with the Farmer's Training Centre, Vizianagaram.
  • Suggesting the farmers visiting the research station with disease/pest affected crop plant samples.

Varieties recommended for Vizianagaram district during kharif

S.No

Crop

Crop

Varieties

1

Paddy

Irrigated Wet land

Srikakulam Sannalu, Sowarna, Sonamasuri, Suraksha, Kotta bayahunda

2

Paddy

Irrigated Upland

Sonamasuri, MTU-1010, Vasundra, Sureka, Abhaya, Vamsi, Paralu, Prabha, Pushkala, MTU-9993, Cotton dorasannalu, Sannalu, Varalu

3

Groundnut

Rain fed

K-3, JL-24, ICGS-11, 44,65, TMV-2, Tag-24, Vemana, Mesta.

4

Mesta

Rain fed

Surya, Kalinga, AHS-73

5

Sesamum

Rain fed

YLM-11, 17, Gowri, Madhavi

6

Sugarcane

Rain fed

87A298, 85A261, 81A99, 84A125, 93A145, Co7219

7

Ragi

Rain fed

Ratnagiri, Godavari, Champavathi

8

Maize

Rain fed

DHM-103,109, DHM-1, Aswani, Harsa, Varuna, Amber popcorn, Madhuri, Priya

9

Redgram

Rain fed

LRG-30, ICPL-332, ICP-8719, ICPL-85063, LRG-41

10

Blackgram

Rain fed

LBG-20, T-9, LBG-623, WBG-26, PBG-1

11

Greengram

Rain fed

LGG-407, 460, ML-267, MGG-295, WGG-2, WGG-37, MGG-310, MGG-341

12

Caster

Rain fed

Kranthi, Joythi, Pusa-105, GCH-4, DCH-32, DCH-177

13

Cotton

Rain fed

MCU-5, LRA-5166, LK-861, Narsimha
Hybrids: H-8, LAHH-4,5, NHH-4, NCH-145(Banni)
Desi cotton: Aravinda, MDL-2452, MDL-2463

14

Tapoica

Rain fed with supplementary irrigation

H-226, H-165

Impact:-
Economic: The varieties/technologies developed and identified are adopted by farmers has good impact on the economic status of the farmers of the zone.
Social: The centre developed good rapport with the allied departments viz.; agriculture, horticulture, sugar factories, ground water etc;


Other information:
The research station has organised Kisan melas and Rythu Sadssu every year fir the benefit of the farmers. The scientist of the centre are participating in the Farmer's training programmes in training programmes to members of water user's association and special training programmes of farmer's training centre, Vizianagaram when ever specially invited and also participating in the soil testing weeks of department of agriculture.

Technical programme of work for the year 2006-07

Plant Breeding

Project No. I: AICRP varietal trials on ragi

  1. Initial varietal trial
  2. Advanced varietal trial I & II (early medium group)
  3. Advanced varietal trial III (late group)

Plant pathology

Project II: FM(PP) 301-Screening of fingermillet entries for important diseases.

    1. Germplasm and local collections
    2. Initial varietal trial ( IVT)
    3. Advanced varietal trial (AVT I,II and III)
  1. FM(PP) 302-National screening nursery (NSN)of Ragi
  2. FM(PP) 303-Evaluation of pre- release and released varieties of Ragi for blast resistance and yield
  3. FM(PP) 304-Management of fingermillet blast
  4. FM(PP) 305-Effects of dates of sowing on the blast and other diseases of Ragi
  5. FM(PP) 306-Survey for important diseases of finger millet and other small millets

Non-plan- ANGRAU-? Research scheme: ( Millet improvement scheme)

Project No II: Germplasm collection, evaluation and maintenance.

  1. Collection of small millets germplasm
  2. Evaluation and maintenance of small millets germplasm (580 cultures of finger millet from

ICRISAT and local collections) collected from 22 countries.

Project No.III: Development of fingermillet-blast resistant lines through hybridization and
selection:

  1. Fresh crossing programme with blast resistant genetic lines and elite/released varieties.
  2. Development of white ragi varieties.
  3. Study of segregating material of ragi crosses.

Project No. IV :Evaluation of ragi cultures

  1. Preliminary yield trial of Ragi (PYT)
  2. Advanced yield trial of Ragi (AYT)
  3. Multi location trail of ragi (MLT)

Testing and Verification functions (Pulses , oilseeds and other crops)
Project No V: Pulses

  1. Multilocation trial of redgram:
  1. Multilocation trial of greengram :
  1. Horsegram varietal trial (Rabi 2005-06 rainfed)

Project No VI : Oil seeds

1. Multilocation trial of groundnut (Spanish bunch):
2. Groundnut yield trial with virginia runner trial types:
3. Development of suitable high yielding groundnut culture for north coastal zone

Project No VII
: Studies on nitrogen requirement of released and pre released varieties of ragi:

Project No VIII
: Minikit demonstration: The testing of improved ragi culture VR 847 vs Ratnagiri will be continued for the third season for confirmatory results. The number of minikit trials in five districts will be 25 in each district during rabi. In all the five districts the DAATTCs-are also allotted five minikits each.

Receipts from 1999-2000 to 2005-06

Year

ICAR

Non-plan

Total

1999-00

0

43394

43394

2000-01

10843

41283

52126

2001-02

15123

40584

55707

2002-03

2666

44498

47164

2003-04

1195

110659

111854

2004-05

3870

72531

76401

2005-06

3278

60921

64199


Senior Scientist & Head
Agricultural Research Station
Vizianagaram

PACKAGE OF PRACTICES
Package of practices- Finger millet? Kharif

Varietal recommendations

Season Period of sowing Variety Duration
Early kharif April - May Suraj (VR-520)
Champavathi (VR-708)
80 - 85 days
80 - 85 days
Kharif June - July Bharathi (VR 762)-
Ratnagiri
Godavari
Gauthami
110-115 days
110 - 113 days
115 - 118 days
115 - 118 days
Late kharif August Suraj (VR-520)
Champavathi (VR-708)
80 - 85 days
80 - 85 days
Rabi November - January Simhadri
Ratnagiri
Godavari-
Champavathi
100 - 105 days
100 - 105 days
100 - 110 days
80 - 85 days
  1. Land preparation: nursery and main field separately

Nursery:400 sq.m nursery is required per one hectare. Preparation of raised seedbeds of 1m width and convenient length

Main field: 2-3 ploughings of mainfield to get fine tilth.

  1. Seeds and seed treatment: 5-7 kg / ha and treat the seed with carbendazim@ 2g / kg of seed.
  2. Sowing / Planting:

Early kharif and rabi: plant 21-25 days old seedlings at a spacing of 25cm X-10 cm or farmers
method of zig-zag planting-with 50 seedling/sq.m-Spacing: 20 X 10 cm

Late kharif : Plant 25-28 days old seedlings / hill or farmers method of behind plough planting to
achieve 33 hills / sq.m-Spacing 30 X 10 cm. Dip the leafy portion of seedlings in 0.1% carbendazim
solution before planting-to arrest the transfer of blast to mainfield. Direct seeding can also be practiced
the clean cultivation and-weed free lands 3 tyned gorru.

d) Fertilizer recommendation: (per ha.)

Early kharif Late kharif Late rabi
Farm yard manuret 10 t 10 t 10-15
Nitrogen* 50 kg 40 kg 60 kg
Phosphorus 40 kg 40 kg 30 kg
Potash 40 kg 25 kg 30 kg

Nitrogen is to be applied in two equal splits as basal and active tillering stages, while P and K have to be applied as basal dose. There are no differences in yield if nitrogen is applied in any form on nitrogen equivalent basis.

  1. Weed management: Apply flu chloralin a.i. @ 1 kg dissolved in 600 lts of water /ha. applied as pre-emergence will give better control of weeds. One to two intercultivations are necessary.
  2. Irrigations: Late kharif crop is raised purely under rainfed conditions. For the irrigated crop, irrigations at 10-12 days interval in light soils and 15-20 days in heavy soils. Irrigations at peak tillering, flowering, grain setting stages are important. Irrigate the crop at 50% soil moisture depletion stage.
  3. Crop management:

i. Pest management:

1) Stem borer: Spray endosulphan @ 2 ml or monocrotophos @ 1.6 ml per litre of water.
2) Leaf eating caterpillars: Dust 1.2% lindane powder @ 25 kg/ha. in-the early hours.
3) Aphids and other sucking pests: Spray dimethoate or methyl-demeton @ 2 ml/l of water.

ii. Disease management:

  1. Blast : a. Treat the seed with carbendazim @ 2g/kg of seed.
    b. Dip seedlings in 0.1% solution of carbendazim just before planting.
    c. Spray carbendazim 0.5 g/lt or mancozeb @ 2 g/lt of water at 50% emergence
    stage and 10 days later.
    2)Leaf spot: Spray mancozeb @ 2 g/lt.


    i). Post harvest technology: a. Harvest the matured earheads in two stages if necessary.
    b. Heap the harvested earheads overnight to achieve uniform colour of seed.
    c. Dry the earheads in sunlight for 2-3 days and extract the seeds by cattle/tractor threshing
    d. Dry well the seed to 10-12% moisture level and store in gunny bags.
  1. Value added products: In the present ragi varieties protein content ranges from 8-14%. The fibre content is also more (3.6%) which helps in maintenance of good health and prevent high cholesterol formation and intestinal cancer. Malted ragi has semi sweetish double sugar like maltose and better amino acid availability and best suited for weaning food preparation. Some of the value added products of ragi are ragi pakoda, ragi malt, green ragi dosa, green ragi idly, green ragi payasa, steamed kadabu, idly, white ragi biscuits, white ragi malt biscuits, ragi dosa, ragi roti, white ragi khara biscuits, ragi bun, ragi cake, white ragi+ groundnut biscuits, chakli, masala roti, ragi halwa, ragi porridge, ragi ambali, tandoori naan, ragi ball etc.
  1. Impact points: i. Grow varieties suitable for specific season.

ii. Adopt seed treatment.
iii. Follow fertilizer schedule recommended for different seasons.
iv. Irrigate at critical stages of crop growth.

RABI - FINGERMILLET

Varieties

VZM-2, Simhadri, Ratnagiri and Godavari

Soils/areas

Well drained sandy loams and loamy soils with clay base.

Land preparation

Land has to be thoroughly ploughed 3-5 times to get fine tilth.

Seed rate

Five to seven kg. Seed for 400 sq.m of nursery to transplant 1 hectare.

Seed treatment

Bavistin @1g/kg of seed

Spacing

20 X 10 cm

Sowing cutoff dates

September - December

Manures & fertilizers

Farm yard manure @ 10 t/ha. 30 +30 kg. N and P /ha for basal application and 30 kg N /ha. as top dressing.

Intercultivation & other practices

Hand weeding 3 weeks after transplanting

Irrigation

Late kharif crop is raised purely under rainfed conditions. For the irrigated crop, irrigations at 10-12 days interval in light soils and 15-20 days in heavy soils. Irrigations at peak tillering, flowering, grain setting stages are important. Irrigate the crop at 50% soil moisture depletion stage.

Pest and disease management

Stem borer: Spray endosulphan @ 2 ml or monocrotophos @ 1.6 ml per litre of water Leaf eating caterpillars: Dust 1.2% lindane powder @ 25 kg/ha. in the early hours.
Aphids and other sucking pests: Spray dimethoate or methyl demeton @ 2 ml per litre of water.
Blast: a. Treat the seed with carbendazim @ 2g/kg of seed.
b. Dip seedlings in 0.1% solution of carbendazim just before planting.
c. Spray carbendazim 0.5 g/lt or mancozeb @ 2 g/lt of water at 50% emergence stage and 10 days later-Leaf spot: Spray mancozeb @ 2 g/lt.
i. I.P.M technologies: a. Adopt seed treatment
b. Select blast tolerant varieties like Gowthami, Godavari, Ratnagiri for late kharif and
rabi-seasons

Harvesting &

Harvest the matured earheads in two stages if necessary

Post harvest technology

Heap the harvested earheads overnight to achieve uniform colour of seed.
Dry the earheads in sunlight for 2-3 days and extract the seeds by cattle/tractor? threshing
Dry well the seed to 10-12% moisture level and store in gunny bags.

Kharif -Pearlmillet

Varieties

Hybrids: ICMH-451, BK-560, MBH-110
Populations: Mallikarjuna, ICMS-7703, WCC-75, ICTP-8203

Soils/areas

Light to medium soils are preferable. Drainage should be taken care in heavy soils

Land preparation

Ploughing three to four times. Contour bunding helps in moisture conservation.

Seed rate

Transplanted crop: 5kg sown in an area of 400 sq.m is sufficient for one hectare
Direct sown crop: 4kg/ha.

Seed treatment

Thiram or captan 2g/kg seed

Spacing

Transplanted crop: 45 x 10cm
Direct sown crop:Dibbled at 4cm depth, 45 to 50 X 12 to 15cm

Sowing with cutoff dates

Transplanted crop:
Nursery: May
Transplanting: June
Cutoff date: First fort night of July
Direct sown crop: June
Cut off: First fort night of July

Manures & fertilizers

Farm yard manure @ 10t/ha.
Basal application of 40:30:00 kg N:P:K /ha and 40 kg N/ha. as top dressing at 20-25 days after planting.

Intercultivation & other management practices

Weeding and hoeing three weeks after transplanting

Irrigation

Rainfed

Pest and disease manage-ment

Sheath fly : Dust quinolphos (1.5%) or parathion (2.0%) or Spray endosulfan 35EC (0.01%)

Grasshopper: Dust carbaryl (5.0%) or Folidol (2.0%) at 20-25 kg/ha.

Aphids : Spray dimethoate-(0.05%) or apply endosulfan (5.0%) granules in whorls at 1.0kg a.i./ha.

Caterpillar : Spray carbaryl (0.15%), endosulfan (0.07%) or quinophos (0.05%)

Rootgrub : Seed and phorate 10G should be mixed at 4:1 ratio before sowing

Sparrow and parrots : Arrange bird scaring ribbons across the field
Downy mildew & green ear : Uproot and destroy diseased plants, spray mancozeb 0.3% or ridomil 0.2%.- Treat seed with apron 35sd (6.0g/kg)

Harvesting

Crop should be harvested to the ground level at peak maturity

Post harvest technology

Earheads are separated and dried in the sun before threshing

MAIZE

Soils

  1. Deep medium black and red loams are suitable
  2. Soils with good drainage and water holding capacity
  3. Water logged soils, alkali soils and saline soils are not suitable
  4. Optimum pH range for raising good crop is 6.5-7.5
  5. Popcorn varieties can be grown in sandy soils

Varieties

Three maturity groups are available

  1. Full season hybrids: They come to maturity after 100 days with very high yield of 60-70q/ha. under good management.
  2. DHM-103: Can be grown in kharif and rabi, duration 105-110 days, suitable for entire country, comes to flowering in 60 days, non-lodging type, moderately resistant to charcoal rot and stem borer.Grains yellow hard and attractive with few depressions-Yield 65-70q/ha.
  3. Trishulatha: Suitable for rabi under irrigation, first three way cross produced in the country, flowering 55-60 days, maturity 105 days, tolerant to charcoal and powdery mildew, yield 60-62q/ha.
  4. Medium duration hybrids : Duration 90-100 days
  5. DHM-107 : Suitable for kharif and rabi, flowering 55-60 days, maturity 90-95 days, withstands drought to some extent, resistant to stem borer, charcoal and powdery mildew-Grain orange yellow with depression on top.Yield 55-60q/ha.
  6. Short duration hybrids : Maturity less than 90 days.
  7. DHM-109: Suitable to all areas for kharif and rabi, flowering 55-60 days, maturity 85-90 days, withstands drought with good yield, moderately resistant to leaf rot, powdery mildew and stem borer. Grains orange yellow with depression on top. Yield 55-60q/ha. with highest yield potential of 80q/ha.
  8. Special varieties :
  9. Amber popcorn (synthetic): Suitable for kharif (90-95 days) and rabi (100-105 days), a good variety for AP-Plant height 1.2-1.5m.Two cobs per plant, suitable for multiple cropping system, grains shine yellows pearls and expand to eight times to original volume when fried. Tolerant to leaf rot and stem borer-Yield 25q/ha.
  10. Madhuri : A special sweet corn variety high delicacy, suitable to all areas for all seasons. Duration 70-75 days for green cobs. Contains 30-36% sugar, 16% protein with good nutritive value. Special variety for vegetable salads, soups and creams-Good fodder variety relished by the cattle.Yield 20q/ha. or 60,000 green cobs per hectare-Cobs harvested immediately after fertilization are suitable for babycorn.

DESIRABLE

  1. Use full season hybrids for normal sowing.
  2. Use medium duration hybrids/varieties for delayed sowing.

Season

Kharif: Mid June to mid July
Late kharif: Mid July to mid august
Rabi: Mid October to mid November
For seed production in coastal districts sowing can be extended up to first fortnight of January. Delayed sowing reduces yield.

Field preparation

Deep ploughing with disc harrow followed by 3-4 times line ploughing for good tilth. Form ridges and furrows before sowing.

Sowing

75 cm between rows and 20 cm between plants or 60 cm between rows and 25 cm between plants to obtain 66,000 plants/ha-Thinning at 15 days to retain single seedling /hill. Dibble the seed on the right side of the ridge on 1/3rd. ht. From top for better irrigation, drainage and crop growth. Seed rate at 18 kg/ha for grain varieties and 12-15 kg/ha for special varieties.

Water management

Critical stages: Maize requires good irrigations at pre-tasseling and flowering (silk formation and milky stage). Avoid excess moisture upto 30 to 40 days. Avoid water stagnation after sowing to improve germination. Good drainage is very important for good cobs. Moisture stress at critical stages reduces yield upto 40%.

Fertilizers and manners

Basal fertilizer application on soil test recommendation.
Normal rainfed crop: 90+50+40 N, P and K kg/ha.
Normal irrigated crop: 120+60+40-N, P, and K kg/ha.
Apply 50 kg/ha. of zinc sulphate in zinc deficient soils. Spray 0.2% zinc sulphate (2ml/lt) if zinc deficiency is observed on the standing crop. Apply entire P, K, and 1/3rd of N as basal dose and the remaining N in two equal splits at 35-40 and 55-60 days. Earthingup after final top dressing. Apply top dress when there is sufficient moisture. Apply 12.5 tons compost in last ploughing. In case of water logging or drought in kharif season spray the crop with micronutrient mixture (1kg urea + 2kg MgSO4+1kg MS16 micronutrients) dissolved in 100 lit of water/acre twice at 15 days interval.

Weed management and intercultivation

Spray Atrazin @1.5-2.0 kg/ha after two days of sowing. Intercultivation with cultivator after 35-40 days. Hand weeding in rows for seed plots.

Intercropping and crop sequence

Two rows of maize and one row of redgram. Crop rotation with groundnut/ sunflower/ redgram is recommended.

Pests and diseases

Stem borer: Spray endosulfan 2ml/lit or application of carbofuran or endosulfan granules at 7-8 kg/ha in the leaf whorls.
Leaf blight: Spray Mancozeb at 3g/ha.

Harvesting

Husk drying and black layer formation indicates physiological maturity with 25-30% grain moisture. Matured cobs hang downwards. Harvested cobs are to be dehusked and sun dried for 3-4 days. Shelling by power operated Sheller is desirable. Harvest popcorn variety at 30-35% moisture level and dry in shade for good popping. Harvest sweet corn at milky stage for good taste (65-70 days). Harvest cobs after milk formation for baby corn either in Madhuri or Amber popcorn. Harvest maize at 50% flowering for high fodder value as fodder. Reduce moisture to 8-10% by drying for grain types.

Post-harvest technology

Clean the seed by winnowing and grading on sieve to separate inert matter, broken and over and under sized grains-Reduce seed moisture to 8-10% before storing. Store in dry cool place free from rodents and insects. Treat seed with thiram or captan@ 3g/kg to protect it in storage from molds.

Impact points

Use high yielding and disease resistant hybrids / varieties (DHM-103, 105, 107, 109, 1, Thrishulatha, Aswini, Varun, and Harsha. Weed management upto 30 days of the crop. Maintain stand to 65,000/ha. Follow recommended fertilizer dose:
Irrigated: 120-60-40-NPK and for rainfed: 90-50-40 NPK kg/ha
Correct Zinc deficiency by soil application or spray. Attend firmly plant protection measures. Irrigations at critical stages i.e., pre-teaseling, silking and milk formation stages increase yield.


Jowar

Varieties

VARIETIES: SPV 462, NTJ 1, N 14

Soils

Red soils

Seasons

rabi: september/october under rainfed conditions
early around the middle of september is the ideal time for planting. if soil moisture is available planting can be extended upto the first week of october. compaction of soil immediately after sowing will help in proper emergence and establishment of seedlings.

Preparatory cultivation

Land is to be thoroughly ploughed. Small size graded channel cum bund could be of use for conservation of soil moisture.

Seed rate

10-12 kg/ha

Spacing

45 x 12 cm ( The optimum plant population is 1,80,000/hectare .Finally thinning should be done to ratain a single seedling per hill.)

Fertilizers

40:20:20 NPK kg/ha, N in two split doses for rainfed crop. If Zn deficiency is observed on standing crop spray ZnSo4 0.2% (2g/lit) twice or thrice at weekly intervals. Under irrigation fertiliser dose can be increased to 80N and 40 P kg/ha. N should be applied in two splits, 50% at sowing and 50% as top dose at 30 days after sowing.

Irrigation

Irrigation if available give it at germination,panicle initiation and grainfilling stages are desirable.

Intercultivation and weed control

Furrowing as part of intercultural operation implemented on contour contributes directly towards 15% increase in the case of high yielding varieties. Application of atrazine @ 0.5 kg a.i/ha on 2nd or 3rd. after sowing followed by hand weeding around 20 days age is enough to keep the crop weed free.Weedicide spray should be done when there is moisture in the soil.

Intercropping

Intercropping jowar with redgram , sunflower or greengram is widely adoptable system.

Sequence cropping

Greengram or blackgram in kharif followed by jowar is good instead of leaving the land fallow.

Pest control

Shoot fly: Treat the seed with carbofuran -3G@ 10g /kg of seed. On main crop apply phorate-10G granules @ 12-15kg/ha 5cm away from seed rows. Alternatively spray endosulfan 35EC(900ml) or dimethoate 30EC (500ml).
Stem borer: Apply lindane 6G granules on leaf whorls at 1.5kg/ha or spray endosulfan 35 EC (1000-1250ml).
Earhead pests: Dust malathion 5% dust.
Midge on earhead: Dust carbaryl 5%.
Mites: Dust sulphur @ 25 kg/ha or spray 2.5 kg-wettable sulphur ( 3g/lit) or kelthane 5ml/lit (500ml).

Disease control

Grain smut, Loose smut and Head smut: Treat seed with sulphur at 5g, thiram, or captan@ 4g/kg.
Downy mildew: Treat seed with thiram @ 4g/kg of seed. Spray mancozeb (3g/lit). Use resistant varieties like CSH-1 and CSH-5.

Rabi - Blackgram

Varieties

LBG-20, T-9, LBG-23, LBG-629

Soils/areas

All soils with retentive moisture with drainage facility

Land preparation

Fine tilth should be obtained to prepare the land weed free

Seed rate

18-20kg/ha

Seed treatment

Carbo sulphan @ 40g/kg for pests and captan or thiram or carbondizime @2.5g/kg seed for diseases before sowing.

Spacing

30 X 10cm

Sowing with cutoff dates

September - October

Manures & fertilizers

20N: 50P /ha as basal

Intercultivation & other management practices

Keep the field weed free till 30 days of sowing

Irrigation

Rainfed

Pest and disease manage-ment

PESTS
Stemfly: Treat the seed with 30g carbofuran 3G granules or 40g carbosulfan/kg seed-Mix 5ml rice gruel /kg of seed before seed treatment.? Spray Acepate @ 1g/lit water on standing crop.
Sucking pests (Whitefly, aphids, thirps and jasids): Spray dimithoate @ 2ml or monocrotophos @1.6ml or chlorpyriphos @ 2.5ml/lit of water.?
Pod borer: Spray endosulphan @2ml or monocrotophos 1.6ml or acepate 1g/ lit of wter twice at the time of flowering and pod formation? with in a week.
DISEASES
Leafspot; Spray carbondizime or TopsinM @1g/lit of water twice in 10days interval.
Bacterial leafspot: Spray Copperoxichloride 3g + pusamicine or plantomicine 1g/lit of water twice in 10 days interval after noticing the disease.
Rust: Spray mancozeb @2.5g/lit of water
Yellow mosoic virus: Grow resistant varieties like PDU-3, LBG-20 or T-9.? Uproot and destroy effected plants and spray dimithiote or mithile demotan @2ml, or trizophos @2.5ml or acepate 1g /lit of water to control whitefly in spreading the disease.
Wilt: Seed treatment as indicated above.

Harvesting

Harvest by cutting the crop at 80% maturity of the pods and retain the root in the soil.

Post harvest technology

Through drying after threshing and periodical drying in storage is required to avoid stored grain pests.

Rabi - Greengram

Varieties

LGG-295, PDM-54,LGG-407, LGG-450, WGG-2 & ML-267

Soils/areas

All light soils with retentive moisture with drainage facility

Land preparation

Fine tilth should be obtained to prepare the land weed free

Seed rate

16-18kg/ha

Seed treatment

Carbo sulphan @ 40g/kg seed before sowing

Spacing

30 X 10cm

Sowing with cutoff dates

September - October

Manures & fertilizers

20N: 50P /ha as basal

Intercultivation & other management practices

Keep the field weed free till 30 days of sowing

Irrigation

Rainfed

Pest and disease manage-ment

Stemfly: Treat the seed with 30g carbofuran 3G granules or 40g carbosulfan/kg seed-Mix 5ml rice gruel /kg of seed before seed treatment- Spray Acepate @ 1g/lit water on standing crop.
Sucking pests (Whitefly, aphids, thirps and jasids): Spray dimithoate @ 2ml or monocrotophos @1.6ml or chlorpyriphos @ 2.5ml/lit of water-
Pod borer: Spray endosulphan @2ml or monocrotophos 1.6ml or acepate 1g/ lit of wter twice at the time of flowering and pod formation-with in a week.
DISEASES
Leafspot; Spray carbondizime or TopsinM @1g/lit of water twice in 10days interval.
Bacterial leafspot: Spray Copperoxichloride 3g + pusamicine or plantomicine 1g/lit of water twice in 10 days interval after noticing the disease.
Rust: Spray mancozeb @2.5g/lit of water
Yellow mosoic virus: Grow resistant varieties like ML-267 & LGG407-Uproot and distort effected plants and spray dimithiote or mithile demotan @2ml, or trizophos @2.5ml or acepate 1g /lit of water to control whitefly in spreading the disease.
Wilt: Seed treatment as indicated above.

Harvesting

Harvest by cutting the crop at 80% maturity of the pods and retain the root in the soil.

Post harvest technology

Through drying after threshing and periodical drying in storage is required to avoid stored grain pests.

Rabi - Redgram

Varieties

LRG-30 (Palnadu), MRG-66, ICPL-85063 (Lakshmi), ICPL-87119 (Aasa), WRG-27

Soils/areas

All soils with retentive moisture with drainage facility

Land preparation

Fine tilth should be obtained to prepare the land weed free

Seed rate

45kg/ha

Seed treatment

Carbo sulphan @ 40g/kg seed before sowing

Spacing

45 X 10cm

Sowing with cutoff dates

September - October

Manures & fertilizers

20N: 50P /ha as basal

Intercultivation & other management practices

Keep the field weed free till 30 days of sowing

Irrigation

Redgram in rabi should be grown with 1 to 2 supplementary irrigations

Pest and disease manage-ment

Sucking pests (Whitefly, aphids, thirps and jasids): Spray dimithoate @ 2ml or monocrotophos @1.6ml or chlorpyriphos @ 2.5ml/lit of water-
Pod borer: Spray endosulphan @2ml or monocrotophos 1.6ml or acepate 1g/ lit of wter twice at the time of flowering and pod formation-with in a week.

Harvesting

Harvest the crop at 80% maturity of the pods.

Post harvest technology

Thorough drying after threshing and periodical drying in storage is required to avoid stored grain pests.

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