The Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) was established on 12th June 1964 at Hyderabad.
The University was formally inaugurated on 20th March 1965 by Late Shri. Lal Bahadur Shastri, the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India. Another significant milestone was the inauguration of the building programme of the university by Late Smt. Indira Gandhi,the then Hon`ble Prime Minister of India on 23rd June 1966.
The University was renamed as Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University on 7th November 1996 in honour and memory of an outstanding parliamentarian Acharya Nayakulu Gogineni Ranga, who rendered remarkable selfless service for the cause of farmers and is regarded as an outstanding educationist, kisan leader and freedom fighter.
The importance of the application of Science and Technology for Agricultural development was realized as early as in the beginning of century. Among the several commissions appointed for suggesting steps to streamline agriculture development, the Royal Commission (1926) emphasized the need for a strong research base for agricultural development. Subsequently, the recommendations of the Radhakrishnan Commission (1949) on University Education led to the establishment of Rural Universities for the overall development of agriculture and rural life in the country. Later, the Government of India constituted the First Joint Indo-American Team (1955) that studied the status and future needs of agricultural education in the country.
The report of this commission laid the foundation for all the subsequent developments with regard to agricultural education in India. However, for want of specific recommendations, the Government of India appointed the Second Joint Indo-American Team (1960) headed by Dr. M. S. Randhawa, the then Vice-President of Indian Council of Agricultural Research. The team submitted its report in 1960, which recommended specifically the establishment of Farm Universities and spelt out the basic objectives of these Universities as
- Inclusion of Agriculture
- Veterinary / Animal Husbandry and Home Science
- Integration of Teaching, Research and Extension
Later, the report of the Second National Education Commission (1964 - `66), headed by Dr. D.S. Kothari, Chairman of the University Grants Commission stressed the need for establishing at least one Agricultural University in each Indian State. As a result, the Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU) was established on June 12, 1964 at Hyderabad. Shri O. Pulla Reddi, I.C.S. (Retired) was the first Vice-Chancellor of the University.
In accordance with provisions of the Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University Act, 1963, some of the Colleges of Agriculture and Veterinary Science were transferred from the Universities to which they had been affiliated to the Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University during June, 1964. These are: Colleges of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, Hyderabad (established in 1961, affiliated to Osmania University), Agricultural College, Bapatala (established in 1945, affiliated to Andhra University), Sri Venkateswara Agricultural College, Tirupati (established in 1961, affiliatedto Sri Venkateswara University) and Andhra Veterinary College, Tiruapti (established in 1961, also affiliated to Sri Venkateswara University). In addition, 41 Agricultural Research Stations, functioning under the Department of Agriculture and four Research Stations of the animal Husbandry Department were transferred to the University in July, 1966 and May, 1967, respectively.
The University was formally inaugurated on March 20, 1965 by late Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri, the then Hon'ble Prime Minister of India. Another significant milestone was the inauguration of the University's building programme by Smt. Indira Gandhi, the then Hon'ble Prime Minister of India on June 23, 1966.
A life size bronze statue of Acharya N.G. Ranga was unveiled by His Excellency Dr. C. Ranagarajan, the Governor of Andhra Pradesh on 7th November, 1998 at the main campus of the University.
During the 40 years of its glorious service to the students and farming community, it has given birth to two other Universities namely S.V. Veterinary University and Dr. Y.S.R. Horticulture University in undivided State of Andhra Pradesh.
At the verge of completion of Golden Jubilee Year of the ANGRAU, it has given birth to a new State Agricultural University namely Prof. Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University with the bifurcation of the State of Andhra Pradesh as per the Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act 2014. Thereafter, the ANGRAU which was serving the students and the farmers of 23 districts of undivided State of Andhra Pradesh is now serving the students and the farmers of 13 districts of new State of Andhra Pradesh with renewed interest and dedication.
- To provide opportunities for the citizens of the state and the country for education in the field of agriculture in its broad sense and to promote research and extension programmes in agriculture and allied sciences. Strengthen UG and PG teaching through periodic revision of syllabi to meet the challenges in fast changing scenario of agriculture
- To establish the required infrastructure to conduct location specific research in the field of agriculture and allied sciences
- To generate technologies to improve farm production and income to farmers
- To provide the needed assistance to the development departments of the Government and other agencies to test and disseminate the improved technologies developed
- To provide opportunities for rural youth and women for learning and adoption of improved agro-technologies
- To revitalize the extension activities through the creation of specific infrastructure in each district
- The Government of Andhra Pradesh is allocating funds under Grants-in-Aid assistance to Acharya N.G.Ranga Agricultural University every year for providing teaching to the students who are pursuing UG, PG & Ph.D.programmes in Agriculture, Research and to carry out extension activities and also for the agricultural related programmes being implemented by Government under Revenue Expenditure (earlier called as Non-Plan) ever since it is commissioned.
- The Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi is providing financial support to the University for implementing various Research Projects on different crops. The ICAR has also sanctioned seven extramural projects to ANGRAU with an outlay of Rs.133.179 lakh under Research Programmes and serving the farming community through Agricultural Universities.
- The Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, Government of India and other Government Agencies are providing funds to the University towards Strengthening & Development of Teaching, Research and Academic facilities and essential amenities in Colleges, Polytechnics and Research Stations of the University.
- The Government of India has also sanctioned 13 Krishi Vigyan Kendras to the University situated at various locations in Andhra Pradesh and conducting several extension activities to cater the needs for the development of farming community and their women folk.
- The Government of Andhra Pradesh has provided assistance to ANGRAU through NABARD – RIDF (Tranches – XX, XXI & XXII) for creation of infrastructural facilities in enhancing the quality in Education, Research and Extension sectors with a project outlay of Rs.283.46 crores.
- Consequent upon the diversification and expansion in the teaching, research and extension programmes, the budget allocation of Rs.61.00 lakh in 1964-`65 raised to Rs.2892.00 lakh in 1990-`91. During the Financial Year 2017-`18, the Government of Andhra Pradesh has allocated budget provision of Rs.30787.39 lakh to the University for providing teaching, research and extension programmes in the state through Agricultural University.
Mission & Goal
- Provide opportunities for the citizens of the state and the country for education in the field of agriculture in its broad sense and to promote research, field and extension programmes in agriculture and allied sciences. Strengthen UG and PG teaching through periodic revision of syllabi.
- Establish the required infrastructure to conduct location specific research in the field of agriculture and allied sciences.
- Generate technologies to improve farm production and income to farmers.
- Provide the needed assistance to the development departments of the Government and other agencies to test and disseminate the improved technologies developed.
- Provide opportunities for rural youth and women for learning and adoption of improved agro-technologies.
- Revitalize the extension activities through the creation of specific infrastructure in each district.
- Adopt advancements in information technology and computers to improve the formal academic programmes and introduce non-formal distance and contact learning programmes for the benefit of farmers, rural youth and women.
Mandate of Institution
- Train human resource needed for agricultural, home Science and allied sectors for the development of the State of Andhra Pradesh.
- Constantly strive to generate technologies for increasing production in the agriculture and home science and allied sectors.
- Assist in the process of transfer of technology through the dissemination of knowledge in collaboration with the Development Departments of the Government.
Act & Statutes
Act & Statutes (Click here to View)
Awards and recognitions
- Two former Vice-Chancellors of ANGRAU viz Dr.M.V.Rao and Dr. I.V. Subba Rao were conferred with Nation's Civil Award, "Padmashri"
- Hosted the 93rd Indian Science Congress, a prestigious national Event held for the first time by our Agricultural University (2006)
- Four teachers have received ICAR's "Outstanding Teachers" award and 16 scientists have bagged Jawaharlal Nehru award.
- ICAR Best Institute Award (1999)
- Third National Youth Parliament Competition Award (1999-2000)
- Sixth National Youth parliament Competition Award (2002-03)
- ICAR - JRF Award (1999,2011, 2018).
- Sardar Patel Outstanding ICAR Institution Award (2007).
- Certificate of Excellence under ICAR institution Award (2015-16)
- ICAR Zonal Best KVK award for 2015-26 for the KVK, Amadalavalasa, Srikakulam district
- ICAR Vasantha Rao naik Award for development and application of dryland technology for ARS, Ananthapuramu (2014 and 2015).
- ICAR Zonal Best KVK for the Zone V(Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Tamilnadu for the KVK Utukur, Kadapa (2016).
- The Best AICRP Millet Centre for the ARS, Vizianagaram (2017 -18)
Several teachers and scientists of the University have been the recipients of different awards and honours instituted by the national and international agencies during the last few years.
- 2008 - Dr. K. Yella Reddy, Principal Scientist (SWE), & Project Manager, Andhra Pradesh Water Management Project, Bapatla, has been awarded the "Watsave Technology Award" awarded by International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage
- Dr. D. B. Eswara Reddy, University Librarian was the recipient of prestigious Fulbright Award for post-doctoral research at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA from September-December 1987.He made a comparative study of information services for agricultural research and extension in India and the USA.
- Dr. (Mrs) P Geervani, former Dean of Faculty of Home Science was awarded the LIGURIA International Prize for research on Nutrition for Child Health in developing countries by the International Cultural Centre for People's Development, Geneva (Italy) in the year 1991.
- Dr. M V Rao, Vice-Chancellor, Acharya N G Ranga University is the recipient of the prestigious Borlaug Award for his outstanding contribution to the cause of improving National Food Security and his leadership in the transfer of technologies to farmer's fields, in 1992.
- Dr. M Narasimha Reddy, Assoc. Professor, Extension Education Institute was awarded 'Gold Certificate' by Coverdale Organizations PLC's London, UK in 1994.
- Dr. A Sreenivasa Raju, Professor and Head, Dept. of Soil Science and Dr. B Srimannarayana, Soil Scientist were jointly selected for the Sulphur Institute, Washington and The Fertilization Association of India (TSI-FAI) 1996 Award for research on plant nutrient sulphur.
- Dr. Md. Hafeez, Professor of Parasitology and Principal, College of Vety. Science, Tirupati is the recipient of World Environment Congress Award for the year 1997.
- Dr. D. B. Eswara Reddy, University Librarian was awarded Commonwealth Foundation Fellowship for a training program on "Information for Agriculture" organized by the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau at Oxford, U. K. in September 1982.
- Dr. K Sitaramaiah, Prof. & Head, Dept. of Plant Pathology, S V Agricultural College, Tirupati has been awarded the Alexander Von Humboldt Fellowship, Germany (1979-81) at the University Bonn, Germany. He was also awarded the same Fellowship (July 1999 - December 1999) to conduct research on Rhizo Bactrin for soil borne disease control.
- Dr. K. Jeevan Rao, Technical officer to Dean of Agriculture, has been awarded the Belgium administration for Development and Cooperation Fellowship for advance training in "Environmental Education and Management" at University of Gent, Belgium during 1995.
- Dr. N P Eswara Reddy, Asst. Professor, Dept. of Plant Pathology, S V Agricultural College, Tirupati has been awarded the Belgium Administration for Development Cooperation (BADC) Fellowship for prosecuting M.S. and Ph.D. studies in bio-technology at University of Brussels, Belgium from 1989 to 1991 and 1991-97.
Dr. K. Yella Reddy, Principal Scientist (SWE), & Project Manager, Andhra Pradesh Water Management Project, Bapatla, has been awarded the "IEI Presidents Gold Medal and Agricultural Engineering Division Prize" awarded by The Institution of Engineers (India), Kolkatta
Dr. K. Yella Reddy, Principal Scientist (SWE), & Project Manager, Andhra Pradesh Water Management Project, Bapatla, has been awarded the "Jain Irrigation Award" awarded by Indian society of Agricultural Engineers, New Delhi.
Jawaharlal Nehru Birth Centenary Award
Dr.S. Raghu Vardhan Reddy, Vice-Chancellor, ANGRAU was honoured with the Jawaharlal Nehru Birth Centenary Award, instituted by the Indian Science Congress, for his outstanding life time contribution to the development of Science and Technology, especially in the field of Agricultural Science. The Vice-Chancellor received the award during the inaugural function of 94th Indian Science Congress, to be held at Annamali University, Chidambaram, on 3rd January 2007.
Prof. H C Dube Outstanding Young Scientist Award
Dr. K Gopal, Senior Scientist (Plant Pathology), AICRP on Tropical Fruits (Citrus), Tirupati received the Prof. H C Dube Outstanding Young Scientist Award of the Indian Society of Mycology and Plant Pathology (ISMPP), Udaipur, for the Year 2006, for his outstanding contributions in the field of Plant Pathology. He received the Award on 9th November 2006, at the 28th Annual Conference of the ISMPP, held at GBPUA&T, Pantnagar, Uttaranchal, from 9-11 November 2006.
R.T.Doshi Foundation Prize
Dr. Y Eswara Prasad, Professor & University Head, Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agricutlure, Rajendranagar received the R.T. Doshi Foundation First Prize for the best presentation of the research paper entitled, 'A study on technical efficiency of shrimp farmers in Coastal Andhra Pradesh' at the Annual Conference of Agricultural Economics Research Association, held at GBPUA&T, Pantnagar, on 28th September 2006.
Dr.G.M.V.Prasada Rao,Scientist-Sr.Scale(Entomology),Regional Agricultural Research Station, Nandyal is awarded with Dr. Bap Reddy Memorial Award for Integrated Pest Management 2004-06 for contributions to promote Integrated Pest Management by the Plant Protection Association of India (PPAI), Hyderabad. The award was conferred on 15th March 2007 during the inaugural session of the national conference on "Organic Waste Utilization and Ecofriendly Technologies for Crop Protection" held at ANGRAU, Hyderabad from 15-17th March, 2007. It is the National Award given biannually.
Dr. M V Rao, former Vice-Chancellor of the University was honoured with the prestigious National Award 'Padmashri' in recognition of his valuable contribution for the development of Agriculture in the country in 1998.
Dr. I V Subba Rao, Vice-Chancellor of the University was honoured with the prestigious National Award 'Padmashri' in recognition of his valuable contribution for the development of Agriculture in the country in 2002.
Several students of the University received the prestigious Jawaharlal Nehru Award for their Post Graduate Research work.
Jawaharlal Nehru Award:
Dr. Balram Marthi, Senior Scientist, Institute of Biotechnology has received Jawaharlal Nehru award for the year 2009 for his outstanding doctoral research contribution in the field of in Crop Science and Crop improvement. He is received this award for utilization of Rice Genic Non Coding Microsatellite markers and Hypervariable Simple Sequence Repeat Markers for the first time for development of genetic linkage map in a New Plant Type based Recombinant Inbred Line mapping population and identified robust novel QTLs for yield and yield contributing traits with major effect in rice. He also validated major QTLs in a set of rice germplasm lines. The markers flanking major QTLs identified can be used for Marker assisted improvement of the trait and for fine mapping and map based cloning of the genes influencing the trait.
- Dr Baby Akula, Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad
Jawaharlal Nehru Award by ICAR in recognition of excellent research carried out for doctoral degrees.
- Dr. D Anjaneya Prasad, Ex-Dean of Veterinary Science
- Dr. E Prasad Reddy, Assoc. Professor
- Dr. Z Prabhakar Rao, Assoc. Professor
- Dr. K Aruna, Assoc. Professor, Foods & Nutrition
- Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Memorial Prize of ICAR for outstanding contributions to research in Animal Nutrition.
- Dr. Sukhadeo Panchbhai, Plant Pathologist
- Dr. S mahboob Sharif, Asst. Professor, Agril. Economics
- Dr. A Vishnuvardhan Reddy, Assoc. Professor, Genetics & Plant Breeding
- Dr. K Nagi Reddy, Assoc. Professor, Agril. Extension
- Dr. R Manorama, Asst. Professor, Foods & Nutrition
- Dr. S Shankarlingam, Plant pathologist, Maize Research Station
- Dr. Shaik Ahmed, Assoc. Professor, Agronomy
- Dr. N Krishna, Assoc. professor
- Dr. B V Raghavendra Rao, Assoc. Professor
- Dr. G Sarojini, Associate Professor, Foods & Nutrition for the year 1986.
- Dr. J Krishnaiah, Professor, Agril. Economics.
- Dr. A Tirupati Reddy, Assoc. Professor, Agril. Bio chemistry.
- Dr. Y Satyanarayana, Sr. Scientist, Plant Pathology
Outstanding Teachers Awards of ICAR (Biennium 1996-97)
The University has bagged three out of six National Outstanding teachers Awards of ICAR. The three recipients are
- Dr. M V Subba Rao, Principal, College of Veterinary Science, Gannavaram
- Dr. K Chandra Sekhar Rao, Professor & Head, Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar.
- Dr. (Smt) V Vimala, Assoc. Professor, Foods & Nutrition, College of Home Science, Hyderabad.
Bharat Ratna Dr. C. Subramaniam Award of ICAR (Biennium 2000-2001)
The Bharat Ratna Dr. C. Subramaniam Award for Outstanding Teachers for the Biennium 2000-2001 is Presented to
- Dr. Y. N. Reddy for his outstanding contribution in the field of Horticulture.
The following teachers of the University were honoured with
State Level Best Best Teacher Awards (State)
- Dr. G. Manoj Kumar, Associate Professor, Institute of Agricultural Engineering & Technology, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030 has received State Level Best Teacher Award for the year 2013 from Government of Andhra Pradesh, for his contribution in Teaching, Research and Extension activities in Institute of Agricultural Engineering & Technology, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030.
- Dr. Mahalakshmi V.Reddy, Professor & Head cum CAFT-H.Sc Director, Department of Resource Management and Consumer Sciences, College of Home Science, Hyderabad, ANGRAU received State Best Teacher Award - 2013, from Government of Andhra Pradesh.
- Prof. K.Jeevan Rao, Professor &PI, Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, ANGRAU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad has been Awarded "Andhra Pradesh Scientist Award-2011" for his outstanding contributions in the field of Agricultural Sciences by the AP State Council of Science & Technology, Govt.of AP.The Award carries Rs 25000/- cash and a citation.
1 Prof. K. Jeevan Rao,
Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture,
Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University ,Rajendranagar, Hyderabad.
2 Prof. T. Ramesh Babu,
Professor & Head,
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture,
ANGR Agricultural University, Hyderabad.
3 Prof. K. Mayuri,
Professor & Head,
Human Development and Family Studies, College of Home Science,
ANGR Agricultural University, Hyderabad.
1 Dr. P. Arjuna Rao
Head, Dept of Entomology & Associate Dean
College of Food Science & Technology,
Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad
2 Prof. G. Swarajya Lakshmi
Professor & Head,
Dept. of Bio-Resources Management
College of Agriculture,
Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad
3 Prof. N. P. Eswara Reddy
Professor & Head, Dept. of Plant Pathology,
S.V. Agricultural College (ANGRAU), Tirupati
1. Dr. Sharada Devi Anne
Professor, Dept. of Apparel & Textiles, College of Home Science
Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad
2. Dr. Challa Subba Reddy
Associate Dean (Retd), College of Food Science & Technology
Agriculture College, Bapatla,
Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad
1. Dr. P. Chandrasekhar Rao,
Professor of Soil Science ANGRAU.
2. Dr. T. Vinod Kumar Singh,
Professor & Department of Entomology,
College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar.
- Dr. D. Rajaram Reddy, Professor of Plant Pathology, Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad
- Dr. M.V.R. Subramanyam, Professor and Head, Department of Forestry, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad
- Dr. K. Raja Reddy, Professor and Head, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, S.V. Agricultural College, Tirupati
- Dr. K. Yella Reddy, Principal Scientist (SWE), & Project Manager, Andhra Pradesh Water Management Project, Bapatla, has been awarded the "Engineer of the Year Award" awarded by Institution of Engineers (I), AP State Centre and Govt of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad..
- Dr. G. Bheemiah, Associate Dean, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad.
- Dr. G. Nageswara Rao, Professor and University Head, Department of Statistics and Mathematics, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad.
- Dr. M V Shantaram, Associate Director of Research (Hqrs), Administrative Office, ANGRAU, Rajendranagar
- Dr. G Narasimha Rao, Assoc. Professor of Dairy Science, College of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar
- Dr. P C Chowdary, Principal, College of Veterinary Science, Tirupati.
- Dr. S. Rami Reddy, Principal, Agricultural College, Tirupati
- Dr. N. Krishna, Professor of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar
- Dr. A. Sreenivasa Raju, Professor of Soil Science & Agril. Chemistry, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar
- Dr. V. Prabhakar Rao, Professor of Genetics & Animal Breeding, College of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar
- Dr. P.S.Sharma Rao, Professor, Plant Physiology, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar
- Dr. M.V. Subba Rao, Professor, College of Veterinary Science, Tirupati
- Dr. (Mrs) V. Vimala, Assoc. Professor, College of Home Science, Hyderabad
- Dr. Y. Narayana Reddy, Principal, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar
- Dr. (Mrs.) Vijaya Khader, Professor and Head, Postgraduate and Research Centre, Rajendranagar
- Dr. A. Satynarayana, Associate Director of Research, RARS, Lam was honoured with the Indian Society for Pulse Research Development (ISPRD) Award for outstanding research contributions in the field of pulse breeding.
- Dr. M. V. Reddy, Senior Scienctist (Pulses), RARS, Lam received ISPRD Award for the outstanding research contributions in the field of disease management.
- Dr. I.V. Subba Rao, Vice-Chancellor, ANGRAU was honoured with the "Vijayashri Award" by India International Friendhip Scociety, New Delhi for his outstanding services, achievements and contributions in the field of Agriculre.
- Dr. M.V. Rao, Vice-Chancellor was honoured by the Indian Society of Extension Education with the "R&D" Linker Award for his outstanding contribution to the field of Extension Education.
- Dr. T.V. Satyanarayana, Assoc. Professor (Agril. Engineering) received Gold Medal for the presentation of Best Research Paper in Indian Engineering Congress held at Kolkatta.
- Dr. I.V. Subba Rao, Vice-Chancellor, ANGRAU, conferred as "Colonel Commandant" & "Rank of Honorary Colonel", by NCC Authorities, Ministry of Defence, Government of India at a special function organised at the sports Complex, Rajendranagar, on 21st December 2001.
- Dr. K. Somasekhar Reddy, Professor & University Head, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science, Hyderabad is the member of the selection committee from the year 1995 for 'ALARSIN' Award instituted for the best article published in the Indian Veterinary Journal.
- Dr. K. Chandrasekhar Rao, Professor & Head, Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar has been acting as Designation Inspection Aurthority (DIA) post-entry quarantine in Andhra Pradesh since 1994.
- Dr. D. B. Eswara Reddy, University Librarian was invited to the CAB's First Scientific Conference on Advancing Agricultural Production in Africa organized by the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau and the Government of Tanzania at Arusha, Tanzania in February 1984. Dr. Eswara Reddy presented a paper on " Trends in Agricultural Information Transfer in India ".
- Dr. K. Chandrasekhar Rao, Professor & Head, Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar is Fellow of Plant Protection Association of India.
- Dr. S. Qudratullah was the Rapporteur at a technical session on "Influence of Genotype, nutrition and production system of ducks" during XX World Poultry Congress held at New Delhi.